Diabetes is known to be associated with erectile dysfunction, retrograde ejaculation, level of testicular hormone, and a decrease in semen quality, respectively. In this project, we aimed to investigate at the molecular level, the effects of NOS on testes pathology in diabetes and examine the effects of pentoxifylline on healing. A total of 50 Wistar albino male rats were divided into five groups: Group I control; Group II only diabetes; Group III and IV diabetes+pentoxifylline; Group V only pentoxifylline. Group III rats received 50mg/kg/day pentoxifylline during two months. In comparison, Group IV rats received saline in the first month followed by 50mg/kg/day of pentoxifylline for the following month. NOS expression in testicular tissue was assessed using qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The mean seminiferous tubule diameter, Johnsen's testicular biopsy score, and serum testosterone levels decreased compared to controls. In contrast, the number of apoptotic cells, the levels of nNOS, iNOS and eNOS mRNA, and protein increased when compared to the control. Upon pentoxifylline therapy NOS decreased suggesting that it contributes to this damage and treatment with pentoxifylline may be effective in reversing this damage.