Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as dumdum fever or kala-azar, is characterized by intermittent fever, substantial weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. If left untreated, the disease can have a fatality rate as high as 100% within two years. This study was aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania sp. in VL suspected patients who applied to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Department of Parasitology between January 1995 and August 2012. Bone marrow samples obtained from 37 (54.4%) males and 31(45.6%) females making a total of 68 VL suspected patients between January 1995 and January 2004 were examined by Giemsa stain technique. Microscopic examination showed Leishmania amastigotes in 4 (5.9%) patients. Bone marrow and sera samples obtained from 42 (55.3%) males and 34 (44.7%) females making a total of 76 VL suspected patients between January 2004 and August 2012 were examined by Giemsa stain technique and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT). Three (3.9%) patients were found to be positive with both IFAT and Giemsa stain technique. Four (5.3%) patients were found to be positive with only IFAT. As a result, VL is a health problem in Kayseri and the fight against VL must be supported by special programs. Therefore, we believe that it should be safer to use both Giemsa stain technique and IFAT together for diagnosis of VL.