The relationship of Aspicilia uxoris within Megasporaceae is assessed within a phylogenetic context. 'Aspicilia' uxoris and other related species are recovered as sister to the genus Lobothallia s. str. and described here as a new genus. Teuvoa (Ascomycota, Megasporaceae) is erected based on nuclear ITS and LSU sequence data and morphological characters. In addition to Teuvoa uxoris, a second species, T. junipericola, is added to the new genus based on material collected from North America. Teuvoa junipericola, T. uxoris and T. tibetica form a group with 8-spored asci, absence of extrolites, rather short-sized conidia and ascospores, lack of a subhypothecial algal layer, and different substratum preferences (on organic substratum) with a sister relationship to genus Lobothallia s. lat. (Aspicilia subgenus Pachyothallia Clauzade & C. Roux). Based on spore measurements of the holo-types, Lecanora ferganensis Tomin from central Asia (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan), Lecanora atrodiscata Gintovt, from Tajikistan and Lecanora takyroides Dzhur. from Turkmenistan are new synonyms to T. uxoris. A lectotype for Lecanora ferganensis is designated, expanding the known distribution of T. uxoris from Algeria, Morocco and Spain, into Central Asia.