This study was performed, from May-June 2005, on 648 (51.4%) males and 613 (48.6%) females making total of 1261 students from eight primary schools in following towns, Yemliha, Mahzemin, Gesi, Güneşli, Cirgalan, and Aǧirnas, in the rural area of the Kayseri Province. Either the adult or egg forms of Pediculus humanus var. capitis were found in 16 (2.1%) male students and 101 (16.4%), female making a total of 117 (9.1%) students. The prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in girls than in boys, the difference was found statistically significant (chi2=71.77, p < 0.05). In these eight primary schools the prevalence rate of infestation was also found statistically significant (chi 2= 95.7, p < 0.05). In conclusion, Pediculus capitis is still a public health problem. For an effective fight against this disease, students, teachers and parents must be acquainted with this subject and also surveillance must be increased.