Cranial bone defects in 27 patients were repaired with bone flaps preserved under the scalp. Head trauma (thirteen patients), cerebrovascular disorder (five patients), postoperative brain swelling (seven patients), and cerebral infective disease (two patients) accounted for the cranial defects. The bone flaps are reimplanted after 14-98 daps. The follow-up period was 6 to 26 months. We have encountered no complications related to this technique in 27 consecutive cases.