Grapevines, although adapted to occasional drought or salt stress, are relatively sensitive to growth- and yield-limiting salinity stress. To understand the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and identify genes commonly regulated by both stresses in grapevine, we investigated transcript profiles in leaves of the salt-tolerant grapevine rootstock 1616C under salt- and ER-stress. Among 1643 differentially expressed transcripts at 6 h post-treatment in leaves, 29 were unique to ER stress, 378 were unique to salt stress, and 16 were common to both stresses. At 24 h post-treatment, 243 transcripts were unique to ER stress, 1150 were unique to salt stress, and 168 were common to both stresses. GO term analysis identified genes in categories including 'oxidative stress', 'protein folding', 'transmembrane transport', 'protein phosphorylation', 'lipid transport', 'proteolysis', 'photosynthesis', and 'regulation of transcription'. The expression of genes encoding transporters, transcription factors, and proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis increased in response to both ER and salt stresses. KEGG pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes for both ER and salt stress were divided into four main categories including; carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, signal transduction and lipid metabolism. Differential expression of several genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis, which validated our microarray results. We identified transcripts for genes that might be involved in salt tolerance and also many genes differentially expressed under both ER and salt stresses. Our results could provide new insights into the mechanisms of salt tolerance and ER stress in plants and should be useful for genetic improvement of salt tolerance in grapevine.