The plant growth, yield, yield efficiency, and fruit quality of 'Rhode Red Valencia' and 'Valencia Late' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on three rootstocks were evaluated under Eastern Mediterranean climatic conditions of Dortyol-Hatay, which is one of the oldest and largest citrus and mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) production regions in Turkey. The fruit yield was affected by rootstock in both scion cultivars from 2007 through 2010. Trees on 'Troyer' citrange had lower yield than those budded on the other rootstocks. The yield of 'Rhode Red Valencia' and 'Valencia Late' orange trees on 'Carrizo' citrange were about 9% and 19% more than those on 'Troyer' citrange, respectively. But trees on 'Troyer' citrange had significant higher yield efficiency than trees on sour orange and 'Carrizo' citrange, because of canopy volume of 'Troyer' citrange was lower than the other rootstocks. The heaviest fruits of 'Valencia Late' orange trees were harvested from 'Carrizo' citrange (214.69 g), while 'Rhode Red Valencia' orange trees did not show differences regarding the rootstock. The rootstocks had no significant effects on juice content of 'Rhode Red Valencia' and 'Valencia Late' oranges. The effects of the rootstocks in both scion cultivars on juice content, total acids (TA), Brix: TA ratio, and number of seeds per fruit were found to be insignificant.