Soybean oil supplementation of a high-concentrate diet does not affect site and extent of organic matter, starch, neutral detergent fiber, or nitrogen digestion, but influences both ruminal metabolism and intestinal flow of fatty acids in limit-fed lambs


KÜÇÜK O. , Hess B., Rule D.

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, vol.82, no.10, pp.2985-2994, 2004 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 82 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2004
  • Title of Journal : JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE
  • Page Numbers: pp.2985-2994

Abstract

Our objective was to measure ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep limit-fed an 81.6% (DM basis) concentrate diet supplemented with increasing levels of soybean oil. Eight white-faced wether lambs (39.9 +/- 3.0 kg BW) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square experiment. Diets were formulated to contain 15.0% CP (DM basis) and included bromegrass hay (18.4%), cracked corn, soybean oil, corn gluten meal, urea, and limestone. Soybean oil was added to diets at 0, 3.2, 6.3, and 9.4% of dietary DM. The diet was limit-fed at 1.4% of BW. After 14 d of dietary adaptation, Cr2O3 (2.5 g) was dosed at each feeding for 7 d followed by ruminal, duodenal, ileal, and fecal sample collections for 3 d. Digestibilities of OM, starch, NDF, and N were not affected (P = 0.13 to 0.95) by increasing dietary soybean oil level. Means for true ruminal (percentage of intake), lower-tract (percentage entering the duodenum), and total-tract (percentage of intake) digestibility for each nutrient were (mean +/- SEM): OM = 50.7 +/- 4.66%, 71.6 +/- 2.58%, and 82.7 +/- 0.93%; starch = 92.0 +/- 1.94%, 96.1 +/- 0.70%, and 99.8 +/- 0.05%; NDF = 36.7 +/- 6.75%, 50.9 +/- 7.58%, and 71.7 +/- 1.93%; and N = 31.6 +/- 9.93%, 84.1 +/- 1.50%, and 81.0 +/- 1.10%, respectively. Total VFA concentration was greatest in sheep fed 6.3% soybean oil and least in sheep fed 9.4% soybean oil (cubic, P = 0.01). Duodenal flow of fatty acids from the diet and those metabolized within the rumen increased (linear, P < 0.001) with increasing dietary soybean oil level. Ileal flow of 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 18:1trans, and 18:1cis-9 fatty acids increased (P less than or equal to 0.04) with increasing dietary soybean oil level. Apparent small intestinal disappearance of 18:0 decreased (linear, P = 0.004) as dietary soybean oil increased, and with 9.4% dietary soybean oil, nearly half the duodenal 18:0 was observed at the ileum; thus, the true energy value of the soybean oil decreased with increasing oil supplementation. We conclude that supplementation of a high-concentrate diet with increasing amounts of soybean oil in limit-fed sheep resulted in a trade off between loss of potential dietary energy from the fat and gain of important PUFA and biohydrogenation intermediates, but without a marked influence on digestibility of other important macronutrients.