The aim of this review is to inform about the scopes and requirements of drug abuse testing. Drug abuse testing is one of the tools for determination of drug use. It must fulfill the quality and safety requirements in judgmental legal and administrative decisions. Drug abuse testing must fulfill some requirements like selection of the appropriate test matrix, appropriate screening test panel, sampling in detection window, patient consent, identification of the donor, appropriate collection site, sample collection with observation, identification and control of the sample, specimen custody chain in preanalytical phase; analysis in authorized laboratories, specimen validity tests, reliable testing METHODS, strict quality control, two-step analysis in analytical phase; storage of the split specimen, confirmation of the split specimen in the objection, result custody chain, appropriate cut-off concentration, the appropriate interpretation of the result in postanalytical phase. The workflow and analytical processes of drug abuse testing are explained in last regulation of the Department of Medical Laboratory Services, Ministry of Health in Turkey. The clinical physicians have to know and apply the quality and safety requirements in drug abuse testing according to last regulations in Turkey.