Background During 19th century, the Circassians were secluded from their lands and forced to migrate to Ottoman Empire properties. Approximately 2,346 Circassians were exiled from Istanbul to Cyprus Island. During the deportation journey, many of Circassian were passed away in consequence of malaria and unknown reasons. Overall, 1,351 survivor Circassians managed to reach the island, however, many of them had faced with endemic malaria again in Cyprus. An autosomal recessive hematological disorder thalassemia was the second endemic health condition after malaria, whereas thalassemia carriers show resistance to malaria infections.