Development of Paclitaxel and Flurbiprofen Co-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles: Understanding Critical Formulation and Process Parameters Using Plackett–Burman Design

Creative Commons License


Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy, vol.49, no.3, pp.161-166, 2019 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 49 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.26650/istanbuljpharm.2019.19036
  • Journal Name: Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.161-166
  • Keywords: Nanoparticles, paclitaxel, flurbiprofen, PLGA, design of experiments, Plackett-Burman, VITAMIN-E TPGS, IN-VITRO, R-FLURBIPROFEN, QUALITY, DRUG, PROLIFERATION, MECHANISM, CELLS, VIVO, PVA
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


Nano drug co-delivery system is a popular strategy for combined application of two or more anticancer and/or synergistic drugs. Synergistic effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-cancer drugs in cancer treatment are shown in the literature. This study aimed to screen and understand the critical formulation and process parameters in the preparation of flurbiprofen and paclitaxel co-loaded nanoparticles to develop an anti-cancer nano co-delivery system. With this aim, critical parameters were determined using the Plackett-Burman experimental design (DoE). Flurbiprofen and paclitaxel drug loading amounts were considered as critical quality attributes to control the effective drug loading ratio. Furthermore, average particle size and zeta potential were also defined as critical quality attributes in order to optimize passive drug targeting and colloidal stability. Surfactant type was determined as the most significant factor for the average particle size and zeta potential. For flurbiprofen and paclitaxel drug loading into the nanoparticles, amounts of both flurbiprofen and paclitaxel were determined as critical factors. Consequently, paclitaxel and flurbiprofen were efficiently loaded into nanoparticles, and the impact of the formulation variables was successfully screened by a DoE. By controlling the determined parameters, the therapeutic efficacy of co-loaded drug nanoparticles could be maximized in further studies.