A 2-day-old Simmental calf with arthrogryposis and astasia was subjected to necropsy examination. The calf was normoglycaemic and normoinsulinaemic. Microscopically, pancreatic tissue was hyperplastic with an irregular lobular arrangement of pancreatic islets. Newly-formed islet cells budded from intralobular or inter-calated ducts (so-called ductulo-insular complexes) and there were prominent blood vessels with telangiectatic features surrounded by rows of cuboidal-columnar islet cells. The newly-formed islets expressed insulin antigen immunohistochemically. The lesion was diagnosed as nesidioblastosis, an uncommon abnormality previously associated with the double muscling trait in cattle. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.