Helichrysum Mill. (Asteraceae) species have been used in folk medicine for thousands of years in the world. The in vitro cytogenetic effects in human lymphocytes of nine Helichrysum taxa used in Turkey folk medicine were investigated. Blood samples were obtained from healthy donors, non-smoking volunteers, which were incubated and exposed to increasing concentrations of methanol extracts of Helichrysum taxa (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL). The inhibitory effects of H. stoechas (L.) Moench subsp. barrelieri (Ten.) Nyman, H. armenium DC. subsp. armenium, H. armenium DC. subsp. araxinum (Kirp.) Takht., H. plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum, H. compactum Boiss. and H. artvinense P.H.Davis & Kupicha on the mitotic index and replication index indicate that these taxa can have genotoxic and mutagenic effects. They should therefore not be used freely in alternative medicine although their antiproliferative activity may suggest anticarcinogenic properties. Increase effects of H. stoechas subsp. barrelieri, H. armenium subsp. armenium, H. armenium subsp. araxinum, H. chasmolycicum P.H.Davis, H. plicatum subsp. plicatum, H. compactum and H. artvinense on the micronucleus rates showed that these taxa can have genotoxic and carcinogenic effects.