Complete D-loop sequences of 20 Mus from three localities in Turkey and seven in Iran were characterized. These countries are thought to be close to the place of origin of the subspecies Mus musculus domesticus. Five new M. m. domesticus haplotypes were added to the nine already known for the region. Four of these 14 haplotypes were very similar to the consensus D-loop sequence for western Europe defined by Nachman et al. (1994), which may represent the ancestral condition for M. m. domesticus. A divergent mtDNA lineage is found in various parts of Turkey and northern Iran; it has spread into western Europe, but other European lineages were not found in either Turkey or Iran. The other Mus D-loop sequences were of M. m. castaneus and Mus macedonicus and confirmed M. macedonicus as a monotypic species with low nucleotide diversity. The prevalence of the standard 40-chromosome complement in this region is particularly interesting with regards M. m. domesticus, as it is consistent with the in situ origin of Robertsonian karyotypic races (2n < 40) in western Europe.