COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and negative attitudes perceived by individuals who do not accept COVID-19 vaccines: A qualitative study

Topbaş Z. S., ŞİMŞEK N.

Turkish Journal of Public Health, vol.21, no.2, pp.223-235, 2023 (Scopus) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 21 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.20518/tjph.1223382
  • Journal Name: Turkish Journal of Public Health
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.223-235
  • Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccines, Qualitative Study, Vaccine Acceptance, Vaccine Hesitancy, Vaccine Refusal
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: It has been noted that in different parts of the world there are a considerable number of people who have a negative attitude to coronavirus vaccines. Therefore, the possible causes of hesitancy and rejection towards COVID-19 vaccine have been found to be worth investigating. In this process, where fierce discussions have been raised, perceptions of marginalization of unvaccinated individuals were also evaluated. Methods: Study data were collected between November, 2021 and February, 2022. Participants were reached via social media. Within the scope of the study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 participants. Interviews were conducted online or face-to-face. The data were analyzed by the method of inductive thematic analysis. Result: As a result of the analysis, it was found that the participants thought COVID-19 vaccines unnecessary, ineffective and/or risky. A number of participants have stated that COVID-19 vaccines may be part of larger goals. However, some participants reported that they felt pressure from their social environment and perceived negative attitudes. Conclusion: Considering vaccines unnecessary, ineffective and risky results in refusal to be vaccinated. It is seen that some of the participants have perceived of marginalization. It is recommended to provide accurate information about the disease and vaccination, to be transparent and to show an empathetic approach to these individuals.