Elaeagnus angustifolia L. is a deciduous wild-growing fruit species that plays significant roles in maintaining ecosystem functions in arid regions. In the present study, the fruit characteristics and genetic variations among 56 E. angustifolia accessions collected from the Central Anatolian region of Turkey were determined. The majority of the variations were observed in fruit characteristics. Results revealed that fruit weights varied between 0.59 g and 2.56 g, fruit lengths between 1.13 cm and 2.58 cm, fruit widths between 0.86 cm and 1.67 cm, fruit shape indexes between 0.52 and 0.92, and pedicle lengths between 1.95 mm and 7.74 mm. The seed lengths and widths varied respectively between 1.02 cm and 2.44 cm and 0.44 cm and 0.62 cm. Seven RAPD and 15 ISSR primers were used for genetic analysis and the genetic distance among the genotypes was between 0.00 and 0.34. All genotypes except two were distinguished, and relatively high-level genetic diversity was investigated. This study offers significant information for the evaluation and conservation of the genetic resources of E. angustifolia. Conservation procedures should be designed and implemented because of the loss of genotypes by anthropogenic impacts.