© 2021 Ali Ergül et al., published by Sciendo 2021.The common fig (Ficus carica L.) is a tree species and is one of the oldest fruit trees cultivated in Turkey. The Western Anatolian region of Turkey produces nearly a quarter of the total dried fig production of the world. This region also harbours a rich fig germplasm. However, so far this germplasm has remained largely uncharacterised. In this study, using 14 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs, we analysed a total of 310 fig accessions from six different regions of Anatolia. In structure analyses, Western Anatolian accessions formed a group, which was correlated with their geographical distribution. In addition, 7 identical, 36 synonymous, and 22 homonymous fig accessions were identified. In multilocus lineages (MLLs) analysis a total of 54 accessions were matched to different accessions as clone assignment. The results will facilitate future germplasm management and breeding efforts in this economically important tree species by identifying genetic diversity, genetic relations and characterising the structure of studied populations and accessions.