International Congress on Multidisciplinary Studies, Iğdır, Türkiye, 6 - 07 Kasım 2018, cilt.3, ss.2032-2039
Natural wastewater treatment systems, so called as “constructed wetlands - CWS” have started to be commonly used for domestic wastewater treatment purposes especially in small communities and villages of Turkey. Wastewater effluents of sewage systems are discharged into specially-designed wetland basins filled with different substrate materials and planted with emergent aquatic species. Various pollution parameters (BOD, COD, TSS, pH, EC, N) are reliably eliminated by passing wastewater effluents through these specially designed treatment systems. However, sufficient phosphorus removal has not been achieved, yet in these systems. Domestic wastewaters general have quite high phosphorus levels. When they were not sufficiently treated and then discharged into water bodies, they create serious eutrophication problems in water resources. The biggest problem in finding the optimal substrate for P removal lies in the fact that P accumulation in a wetland is a finite process and once saturated, the substrate has to be replaced. In addition, the materials are often placed in a CWS without investigation of their physical and chemical properties prior to construction. Therefore, the most appropriate material to be used has yet to be found. Absorption is the primary phosphorus removal mechanism from the wastewater. Thus, absorptive highly porous substrate materials have been used to improve phosphorus removals levels. Naturally occurring materials including soils, sands and clays, naturally occurring aggregates and other natural materials, processed and modified minerals and various other waste materials are used to provide absorptive surfaces for phosphorus. In this study, phosphorus removal capacity of various substrate materials was assessed and recommendations were provided for reliable phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater effluents.