Intracellular drug delivery by exosomes: Present condition and future perspectives


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Sohel M. M. H.

1.International 6. Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology Congress, Kayseri, Türkiye, 4 - 07 Eylül 2019, ss.214-223

  • Basıldığı Şehir: Kayseri
  • Basıldığı Ülke: Türkiye
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.214-223

Özet

Nanotechnology plays a crucial part in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of a wide variety of human diseases including cancer. The recent decades have witnessed a rapid development of nanocarriers as drug delivery system. Using nanocarriers have several pharmacokinetics and safety profiles in addition to the increased bioavailability of the entrapped molecules. However, there are several obstacles in attaining the goal of successful clinical translation of nanocarrier-based drug delivery system because of the safety, stability and delivery efficiency of nanocarriers. In this scenario, exosome could be an excellent alternative to conventional drug delivery agents. Exosomes are bi-layered nanovesicles of 40-100 nm diameter and contain different bioactive molecules including microRNAs, mRNAs, DNA fragments, and proteins. Exosomes are actively released by healthy cells in the extracellular matrix and can be taken up by the surrounding or distant cells. Due to their inherent ability to carry bioactive molecules, exosomes emerged as a versatile drug vehicle and have attracted the attention of many researchers. The most impressive characteristics of exosomes are nanosized, non-immunogenic due to similar composition as body’s own cells, high biocompatibility, readily bioavailable, ability to penetrate biological barriers, and encapsulation of various cargo which significantly distinguish them from other conventional nanocarriers. It is important to note that recently exosome-based nanocarriers containing small drug molecules and bioactive macromolecules have been developed for the treatment of several prevalent diseases such as cancer, central nervous system disorders, and other degenerative diseases. Nanocarriers based on exosomes have enormous prospects in overcoming several difficulties faced in gene and drug delivery. This article will briefly highlight the advancement as well as the challenges of exosome-based nanocarriers as drug delivery system. In addition, it will also discuss the future perspectives of exosome-based drug delivery system. Special attention will be placed on the exosomal biogenesis, release mechanisms, and advantages of using exosomes containing special cargo, as a drug delivery system, in treating obstinate diseases. The aim is to offer new insights for exploring exosomes in the emerging field of drug delivery.