International Conference on Mathematics and Mathematics Education (ICMME-2018), Ordu, Turkey, 27 - 29 June 2018, pp.540-541
ABSTRACT
Mathematical tasks are defined as a classroom activity which is done in order to get students attention on a conclude that there is a strong relationship between students learning and level of cognitive particular mathematical idea [1]. Mathematical tasks are all the classroom activities which provide students’ learning [2]. Stein and Lane [3] examined mathematical task in curriculum materials and used in the classroom. They conducted observation in four different school to understand relation between cognitive level of mathematical task and students’ learning. They demand. In 2000, they developed The Task Analysis Guide in order to determine cognitive level of mathematical tasks. The Task Analysis Guide include four categories which are low-level memorization tasks, low-level procedure without connection tasks, high level procedure with connection task and high-level doing mathematics task.
In the forth-year of Elementary Mathematics Education Program, prospective teachers have to take Practice Teaching in Elementary Education course. As a requirement of this course, prospective teachers go to middle schools and lecture. For their lecture, they need to prepare lesson plan. 15 prospective teachers prepare 150 lesson plans which include 5th to 8th grade spring semester mathematical subjects. For this study, these lesson plans were used as data source.
This study is based on document analysis, a method of content analysis [4] were used. Three researchers analysed the task as following task analysis framework developed by Stein and Smith [1]. Memorization tasks are coded as Low-M, procedure without connection tasks are coded as Low-P, procedure with connection tasks are coded as High-P and doing mathematics tasks are coded as high-DM.
International Conference on Mathematics and Mathematics Education
(ICMME-2018), Ordu University, Ordu, 27-29 June 2018
541
Analysis of the data showed that prospective teachers used mostly low level cognitive demanding task in their lesson plans. There were no doing mathematics taking place in the lesson plan of the prospective teachers.
Key Words: Mathematical tasks, level of cognitive demand, lesson plan
REFERENCES
[1] M. K. Stein and M. S. Smith, Mathematical tasks as a framework for reflection, From research to practice. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School (1998),3(4), 268-75
[2] W. Doyle, Work In Mathematics Classes: The Context Of Students’ Thinking During Instruction, Educational Psychologist (1988) 23,167-180.
[3] M. K. Stein and S. Lane, Instructional tasks and the development of student capacity to think and reason: An analysis of the relationship between teaching and learning in a reform mathematics project. Educational Research and Evaluation (1996),2, 50-80.
[4] C. Maxwell, Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation, Jossey-Bass New York, Inc., New York, 2009.