Assessment of the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic potential of flurbiprofen in HeLa and HepG2 cell lines

Bakır E. , Çal T., Aydın Dilsiz S., Canpınar H., Eken A. , Ündeğer Bucurgat Ü.

JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY, vol.35, no.6, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/jbt.22770
  • Keywords: anticancer, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, flurbiprofen, genotoxicity


In the literature, the anticancer potential of flurbiprofen isn't fully understood. In this study, the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic effects of flurbiprofen were evaluated in human cervical and liver cancer cells. Cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and it was observed that cytotoxicity increased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Genotoxicity was determined using alkaline Comet assay. DNA damage increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Early apoptosis was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and it was found that apoptotic gene levels increased while antiapoptotic gene levels decreased. Late apoptosis and cell cycle analyzes were determined using flow cytometry. No evidence of late apoptosis was observed, and no significant arrest was found in the cell cycle. In conclusion, it seems that flurbiprofen has a cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic effects in both human cancer cell lines. Moreover, the findings indicate that flurbiprofen is effective at the gene level and induces apoptosis with an intracellular pathway.