The mechanism of osseointegration is related to many factors, including the quality of the bone, the biocompatibility and surface characteristics of the implant material, the surgical technique, and functional loading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hyaluronic acid gel on the osseointegration of implants placed in defined areas of the mandible in rabbits. Hyaluronic acid is known to have an osteoinductive effect during regeneration of bony defects, and we thought that it might also have a favourable effect on osseointegration, a specialised mechanism to heal bone. Ten New Zealand rabbits aged 10 weeks and weighing 2.5-3.0 kg were used, and sites for implants that were far enough from the apices of the teeth in the mandibular molar area were chosen. Two cavities were prepared in each rabbit, one (anterior) for the control implant, and one (posterior) for the implant with hyaluronic acid gel (Medical Instinct GmbH, Bovenden). New bone and the osteoid matrix content around the dental implants were evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically two months after the operation, and no significant difference was found between the two groups. (C) 2018 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.