Surge of mucormycosis during the COVID-19 pandemic

Dam P., Cardoso M. H., Mandal S., Franco O. L., SAĞIROĞLU P., POLAT O. A., ...More

Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, vol.52, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 52
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2023.102557
  • Journal Name: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Black fungus, Mucorales, Mucormycosis, COVID-19, DKA, Angioinvasion, Liposomal amphotericin B
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


Patients with respiratory viral infections are more likely to develop co-infections leading to increased fatality. Mucormycosis is an epidemic amidst the COVID-19 pandemic that conveys a ‘double threat’ to the global health fraternity. Mucormycosis is caused by the Mucorales group of fungi and exhibits acute angioinvasion generally in immunocompromised patients. The most familiar foci of infections are sinuses (39%), lungs (24%), and skin tissues (19%) where the overall dissemination occurs in 23% of cases. The mortality rate in the case of disseminated mucormycosis is found to be 96%. Symptoms are mostly nonspecific and often resemble other common bacterial or fungal infections. Currently, COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) is being reported from a number of countries such as the USA, Turkey, France, Mexico, Iran, Austria, UK, Brazil, and Italy, while India is the hotspot for this deadly co-infection, accounting for approximately 28,252 cases up to June 8, 2021. It strikes patients within 12–18 days after COVID-19 recovery, and nearly 80% require surgery. Nevertheless, the mortality rate can reach 94% if the diagnosis is delayed or remains untreated. Sometimes COVID-19 is the sole predisposing factor for CAM. Therefore, this study may provide a comprehensive resource for clinicians and researchers dealing with fungal infections, intending to link the potential translational knowledge and prospective therapeutic challenges to counter this opportunistic pathogen.