The effects of kefir in mixed meals on appetite and food intake: a randomized cross-over trial

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Caferoğlu Z. , Aytekin Şahin G.

Revista De Nutricao-Brazilian Journal Of Nutrition, cilt.34, ss.1-11, 2021 (SCI Expanded İndekslerine Giren Dergi)

  • Cilt numarası: 34
  • Basım Tarihi: 2021
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1590/1678-9865202134e190174
  • Dergi Adı: Revista De Nutricao-Brazilian Journal Of Nutrition
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.1-11



The natural probiotic kefir is fermented milk, and may have effects on satiety and voluntary energy intake. This randomized crossover trial aimed to determine whether kefir, consumed with low- or high-glycemic index meals, affects appetite and subsequent food intake.


Twenty four healthy females aged 21-24 years, were recruited from Erciyes University and the surrounding community. The participants were submitted to three different breakfasts: a low glycemic index accompanied by milk, a low glycemic index with kefir, and a high glycemic index with kefir, with a 1-week washout period between meals. At 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes after the meal, appetite ratings were measured by the visual analog scale, and then ad libitum lunch was served.


No differences in appetite scores and voluntary energy intake were detected between the test meals. Furthermore, palatability ratings were similar between test meals, except for the higher score of high glycemic index kefir for overall palatability.


This study demonstrated that adding kefir to a high glycemic index meal may prevent increases in appetite and food intake, resulting in postprandial responses similar to those of a low glycemic index meal. These findings might enable the development of novel dietary strategies based on appetite regulation to treat or prevent obesity, particularly for Western societies. This trial was registered at under the process NCT03636217.

Keywords: Appetite. Glycemic index. Kefir. Obesity. Probiotics.