Treatment of industrial and domestic wastewater is very important to protect downstream users from health risks and meet the freshwater demand of the ever-increasing world population. Different types of wastewater (textile, dairy, pharmaceutical, swine, municipal, etc.) vary in composition and require different treatment strategies. Wastewater management and treatment is an expensive process; hence, it is important to integrate relevant technology into this process to make it more feasible and cost-effective. Wastewater treatment using microalgae-based technology could be a global solution for resource recovery from wastewater and to provide affordable feedstock for bioenergy (biodiesel, biohydrogen, bio-alcohol, methane, and bioelectricity) production. Variousmicroalgal cultivation systems (open or closed photobioreactors), turf scrubber, and hybrid systems have been developed. Although many algal biomass harvesting methods (physical, chemical, biological, and electromagnetic) have been reported, it is still an expensive process. In this review article, resource recovery fromwastewater using algal cultivation, biomass harvesting, and various technologies applied in converting algal biomass into bioenergy, along with the various challenges that are encountered are discussed in brief. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.