Human kallikreins (hKs) have been reported to be involved in human cancers, and several hKs are promising biomarkers of various cancers, such as prostate, ovarian, breast, and testicular cancer. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical expression of hK11 in patients with gastric cancer. The study included 55 (36 men and 19 women; 58 +/- 10 years of mean age) patients with gastric cancer treated with surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Tissue sections were evaluated immunohistochemically with a monoclonal anti-hK11 antibody. Of the 55 patients, 35 (63.6%) were hK11-positive and 20 (36.4%) were hK11-negative. Disease-free and overall survival rates were significantly higher in patients with hK11 positive than in those with hK-11 negative expression (24 months vs. 11 months, p: 0.043; 29 months vs. 13 months, p: 0.038, respectively). In conclusion, hK11 expression in gastric cancer appears to be associated with a better prognosis. hK11 may be a prognostic biomarker of gastric cancer. On the other hand, it is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of hK11 expression in gastric cancer. (C) 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.