Molecular epidemiology, antifungal susceptibility and virulence factors of Candida glabrata complex strains in Kayseri/Turkey

Kaan Ö., Koç A. N. , Altay Atalay M. A. , Mutlu Sarigüzel F.

Microbial Pathogenesis, vol.154, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 154
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104870
  • Title of Journal : Microbial Pathogenesis
  • Keywords: Candida glabrata complex, Antifungal susceptibility, Molecular epidemiology, Sequence analysis, Virulence, SPP., BRACARENSIS, IDENTIFICATION, PHOSPHOLIPASE, NIVARIENSIS, PREVALENCE, COLLECTION, YEASTS


© 2021Background: Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis are included in Candida glabrata complex, which are usually misidentified as C. glabrata based on phenotypic identification methods. It was aimed to identify C. glabrata complex isolated from various clinical samples in Kayseri/Turkey to the species level and to determine antifungal susceptibilities, virulence factors, and molecular epidemiology. Methods: Eighty three C. glabrata complex strains were studied in this study. Strains were phenotypically and molecularly identified. Phylogenetic analysis was done by the neighbor-joining method. Proteinase, phospholipase, esterase enzyme activity, and biofilm formation of strains were determined phenotypically. Antifungal susceptibility of strains were determined according to M60-Ed2 recommendations. Results: All the 83 strains identified as C. glabrata complex by phenotypic tests were confirmed as C. glabrata sensu stricto (C. glabrata) by PCR amplification and sequence analysis, but other complex members C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis were not detected. Phylogenetic analysis results revealed 19 different genotypes. No clonal relationship was detected among the strains. Biofilm formation in 75.9% of strains and esterase activity in 7.2% were found positive. Antifungal resistance rates of strains were determined as 9.2% for fluconazole and 45.8% for itraconazole; 43.4% of the strains for voriconazole were determined as non-wild type. Conclusion: It was determined that biofilm and esterase activity might play an active role in the virulence of C. glabrata. In addition, high resistance rates to azoles in C. glabrata strains isolated in our hospital at Kayseri/Turkey emphasized the significance of epidemiological studies.