Investigation of the efficacy of diosmin against organ damage caused by bendiocarb in male Wistar albino rats

Bahar O., ERASLAN G.

Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.30, no.19, pp.55826-55845, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 19
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-023-26105-2
  • Journal Name: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.55826-55845
  • Keywords: Bendiocarb, Carbamate pesticide, Diosmin, Flavonoid, Antioxidant effect, Protective role, Organ damage, Oxidative stress, Rat
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


Bendiocarb is a carbamate insecticide, which is used more in indoor areas, especially against scorpions, spiders, flies, mosquitoes and cockroaches. Diosmin is an antioxidant flavonoid found mostly in citrus fruits. In this study, the efficacy of diosmin against the adverse effects of bendiocarb was investigated in rats. For this purpose, 60, 2–3 month-old male Wistar albino rats, weighing 150–200 g, were used. The animals were assigned to six groups, one of which was maintained for control purposes and five of which were trial groups. The control rats received only corn oil, which was used as a vehicle for diosmin administration in the trial groups. Groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were administered with 10 mg/ bendiocarb, 10 mg/ diosmin, 20 mg/ diosmin, 2 mg/ bendiocarb plus 10 mg/ diosmin, and 2 mg/ bendiocarb plus 20 mg/ diosmin, respectively, using an oral catheter, for 28 days. At the end of the study period, blood and organ (liver, kidneys, brain, testes, heart and lungs) samples were collected. Body weight and organ weights were determined. Compared to the control group, in the group given bendiocarb alone, firstly, body weight and liver, lung and testicular weights decreased. Secondly, tissue/plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels increased, and glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (except for lung tissue), glutathione reductase (GR), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities decreased in all tissues and erythrocytes. Thirdly, catalase (CAT) activity decreased in erythrocytes and the kidney, brain, heart and lung tissues and increased in the liver and testes. Fourthly, while GST activity decreased in the kidneys, testes, lung and erythrocytes, an increase was observed in the liver and heart tissues. Fifthly, while serum triglyceride levels and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and pseudo-cholinesterase (PchE) activities decreased, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and uric acid levels increased. Lastly, liver caspase 3, caspase 9 and p53 expression levels significantly increased. When compared to the control group, the groups treated with diosmin alone showed no significant difference for the parameters investigated. On the other hand, it was observed that the values of the groups treated with a combination of bendiocarb and diosmin were closer to the values of the control group. In conclusion, while exposure to bendiocarb at a dose of 2 mg/ for 28 days caused oxidative stress/organ damage, diosmin administration at doses of 10 and 20 mg/ reduced this damage. This demonstrated that diosmin has pharmaceutical benefits, when used for supportive treatment as well as radical treatment, against the potential adverse effects of bendiocarb. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].