Severe iodine deficiency disorders may have been eradicated in many parts of the world, but milder forms still exist and may escape detection. The aim of this study was to assess the iodine nutritional status of pregnant women and their newborns, and the prevalence rates and severity of iodine deficiency in the Kayseri region, which has appeared to be iodine deficient in previous studies. A cross-sectional voluntary screening study was performed in the Maternity Unit of the University Hospital. Seventy pregnant women and their babies participated in this study. Iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goiter, low urinary iodine excretion and high serum thyroglobulin concentrations were recognized among pregnant women and their babies in Kayseri. Regular administration of iodine, starting at preconception or in early pregnancy and continuing during the period of nursing, is recommended in these regions.