Treatment of sepsis: What is the antibiotic choice in bacteremia due to carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae?

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Alhashem F., Tiren-Verbeet N. L., Alp E., DOĞANAY M.

WORLD JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CASES, vol.5, no.8, pp.324-332, 2017 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 5 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.12998/wjcc.v5.i8.324
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED)
  • Page Numbers: pp.324-332
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


Sepsis is one of the major challenges of today. Although gram-positive bacteria related infections are more prevalent in hospital setting, the highest mortality rate is associated with gram-negative microorganisms especially Enterobacteriaceae. Enterobacteriaceae, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Enterobacter spp. and Serratia spp. Resistance to B-lactams in Enterobacteriaceae is primarily attributed to the production of B-lactamase enzymes with subsequent antibiotic hydrolysis and to a lesser extent by alteration of efflux pump or porins expression. Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and Acinetobacter baumannii are the most notorious pathogens due to the high incidence of morbidity and mortality especially in the immunocompromised patients in the intensive care unit. The most appropriate antimicrobial therapy to treat CRE is still controversial. Combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy due to its broad-spectrum coverage of micro-organisms, due to its synergetic effect and to prevent development of further resistance. Current suggested therapies for CRE resistance as well as promising antibiotics that are currently under investigation for winning the war against the emerging CRE resistance are reviewed and discussed.