Can endoplasmic reticulum stress observed in the PTZ-kindling model seizures be prevented with TUDCA and 4-PBA?


European Journal of Pharmacology, vol.960, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 960
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2023.176072
  • Journal Name: European Journal of Pharmacology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Apoptosis, Oxidative stress, Seizure, TUDCA, Unfolded protein response
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease with recurrent seizures. Increasing evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. We aimed to investigate the effects of Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and 4-phenyl-butyric acid (4-PBA), which are known to suppress ER stress, on developed seizures in terms of markers of ER stress, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model was induced in Wistar albino rats (n = 48) by administering 35 mg/kg PTZ intraperitoneally (I.P.) every other day for 1 month. TUDCA and 4-PBA were administered via I.P. at a dose of 500 mg/kg dose. ER stress, apoptosis, and oxidative stress were determined in the hippocampus tissues of animals in all groups. Immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, ELISA, and Western Blot analyzes were performed to determine the efficacy of treatments. Expressions of ATF4, ATF6, p-JNK1/2, Cleaved-Kaspase3, and Caspase12 significantly increased in PTZ-kindled seizures compared to the control group. Increased NOX2 and MDA activity in the seizures were measured. In addition, stereology analyzes showed an increased neuronal loss in the PTZ-kindled group. qRT-PCR examination showed relative mRNA levels of CHOP. Accordingly, TUDCA and 4-PBA treatment suppressed the expressions of ATF4, ATF6, Cleaved-Caspase3, Kaspase12, NOX2, MDA, and CHOP in TUDCA + PTZ and 4-PBA + PTZ groups. ER stress-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis by reducing neuronal loss and degeneration were also preserved in these groups. Our data show molecularly that TUDCA and 4-PBA treatment can suppress the ER stress process in epileptic seizures.