Penetration mechanics of ceramic/metal functionally graded plates under ballistic impact: An experimental perspective


Composite Structures, vol.331, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 331
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2024.117897
  • Journal Name: Composite Structures
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Ballistic impact, Failure mechanisms, Functionally graded material (FGM), High-speed photography, Penetration mechanics
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


This paper deals with a comprehensive experimental analysis of the penetration mechanics and failure mechanisms of SiC/AA6061 functionally graded plates under ballistic impact. The external, cross-sectional, and high-speed photographic damage and failure assessments of the plates were performed. The novelty of this study is to investigate the ballistic impact behavior of a ceramic/metal functionally graded plate with different compositional gradients in a wide range of impact velocities considering below and above the ballistic limit and to reveal a detailed analysis of the damage and failure mechanisms of the plate. This can provide fundamental insights into the design of ceramic/metal functionally graded armor materials. The results indicate that the metal-dense gradient plate shows localized ductile failures as ductile perforation and plugging, whereas the ceramic-dense gradient plate exhibits brittle failures as comminution and conoidal fracture. Tailoring a relatively continuous compositional gradient instead of an abrupt variation, namely the linear gradient, provides tensile stress wave attenuation and resistance to crack growth and fracture.