The mammalian oviduct provides a favourable environment for several reproductive processes, including ovum transport, sperm capacitation, fertilization and pre-implantation embryonic development. This environment is regulated by cyclic ovarian steroids, that is oestrogen, and growth factors. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate the differentiation and growth of various cell types in the female genital tract. This study aimed to determine the localization of FGF1, FGF2, FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) and 2 (FGFR2) in the rat oviduct, by immunohistochemistry, on day 5 of pregnancy and post-partum days 1, 3 and 5, and to demonstrate the possible functions of these proteins during early pregnancy and the post-partum period. On all examination days, cytoplasmic and nuclear FGF1 immunoreactivity was detected in the epithelium lining the infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus of the oviduct. Immunoreactivity was much stronger in the basal bodies of the cilia on the epithelium lining the infundibulum and ampulla. FGF1 immunoreactivity was also detected in stromal cells, myocytes and endothelial cells. Cytoplasmic FGF2 immunoreactivity was observed in the tunica muscularis, vascular myocytes and endothelial cells. While strong cytoplasmic FGF2 immunoreactions were observed in the stromal cells of the lamina propria, the luminal epithelium, some stromal cells and smooth muscle cells displayed a rather weak FGFR1 and FGFR2 immunoreactivity. Immunoreaction intensity did not differ between the periods examined. This study shows that FGF1, FGF2, FGFR1 and FGFR2 are produced by rat oviduct cells during pregnancy and the post-partum period, and reproductive physiology is regulated not only by hormonal mechanisms, but also by growth factors.