Normal and oblique ballistic impact damage behaviour of functionally graded plates: Experimental and numerical

Hakan M., Güneş R., Apalak M. K., Reddy J.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMPACT ENGINEERING, vol.181, pp.104576, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 181
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2023.104756
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, L'Année philologique, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.104576
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


The present study discusses experimental and numerical investigations on the dynamic response of functionally graded plates subjected to normal and oblique ballistic impact. Functionally graded plates were produced in a step-wise manner with powder metallurgy method using powder stacking-hot pressing technique. An experimental configuration was developed where projectiles impact functionally graded plates with three different compositions at impact angles of 0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees. Ballistic tests of functionally graded plates were carried out with a single-stage gas gun system using fragment simulating projectile (FSP) at velocities of approximately 610 m/s. The effect of the material composition and obliquity on damage and deformation of functionally graded plates was studied by varying the Al 6061 and SiC volumetric ratios to metal-rich (n = 0.1), linear (n = 1.0), and ceramic-rich (n = 10.0). Finite element analyses of functionally graded plates were performed with ANSYS Ls-Dyna explicit solver by employing the Mori Tanaka method to determine local material properties in the graded region and the TTO model to define elasto-plastic material behavior. The normal and oblique ballistic tests of functionally graded plates were compared with the values predicted from the finite element model in terms of damage, deformation, and fracture mechanisms. According to both numerical and experimental studies, the impact angle and material composition were found to be significant influences on damage and deformation of functionally graded plates. Given the complexity of the modeling of the ballistic impact events, the numerical models developed to predict the penetration depth and failure mechanism of plates in the ballistic impact tests showed a good agreement for n = 0.1 and n = 1.0 material compositions due to their metal-rich compositions.