A comprehensive review on battery thermal management system for better guidance and operation

Altuntop E. S., Erdemir D., Kaplan Y., ÖZCEYHAN V.

Energy Storage, vol.5, no.8, 2023 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 5 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/est2.501
  • Journal Name: Energy Storage
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Applied Science & Technology Source, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Keywords: battery, battery pack, battery thermal management system (BTMS), heat transfer, Li-ion battery, thermal runaway
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


Batteries are essential to mobilization and electrification as they are used in a wide range of applications, from electric vehicles to small mobile devices. All these devices are powered with AC or DC inside their systems, so they require different battery systems depending on their technical requirements. Batteries show unique characteristics depending on their types, and their needs vary based on their performance, ambient conditions, and so forth. One of the main demands for them is thermal stability. For batteries, thermal stability is not just about safety; it's also about economics, the environment, performance, and system stability. This paper has evaluated over 200 papers and harvested their data to build a collective understanding of battery thermal management systems (BTMSs). These studies are specifically designed to solve different problems. This paper has been prepared to show what these systems are, how they work, what they have been designed for, and under what conditions they should be applied. The BTMSs have been evaluated based on their method, method tools, discharge rate, maximum temperature, temperature difference values, and ambient and inlet temperatures. After evaluating over 200 studies, the results indicate that the passive BTMSs are not useful the cases where the temperature reaches higher values suddenly, especially for system systems that require higher discharge rates. On the other hand, active cooling methods do not manage the temperature difference in the battery cells. However, hybrid cooling methods address both cases admirably by compensating for both of their weaknesses and bringing out their advantages. The general optimum temperature for lithium battery batteries is 55°C. Even though there are many other parameters that need to be considered before making a decision for a BTMS design, the best performance for an optimum system seems to be methods 34, 38, and 22 as they are able to provide lower maximum temperature and temperature difference in the cells.