Effects of addition of stale bread flour on the acrylamide, fatty acid composition, resistant starch content, and in vitro glycemic index in wheat chips production using response surface methodology

Yuksel F., KAYACIER A.

LWT-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.161, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 161
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.lwt.2022.113354
  • Keywords: Stale bread flour, Wheat chips, Response surface methodology, Acrylamide, In vitro starch digestibility, SENSORY PROPERTIES, POTATO-CHIPS, STORAGE, BAKING, FOODS, OIL


In the world, breads were wasted by consumers due to staling and the aim of the study is to develop a new snack food by fortification of wheat chips with stale bread flour (SBF). The effect of process variables on some chemical properties and fatty acid of the chips were investigated by response surface methodology. The coefficient of determination (R-2) of the response models ranged from 0.61 to 0.92, revealing that the models adequately explained the variability in the responses. The acrylamide of the enriched chips increased with both increasing frying temperature and SBF content. The addition of SBF into the chips dough increased the contents of protein (by 13%) and resistant starch (by 58%) of the end products. The maximum GI content was determined as 88.94, while the minimum GI content was 80.59 and the addition of SBF decreased the GI of the chips by 10% although this decrease was not statistically significant. According to the optimization parameters, the best chips were those containing 50% SBF, fried at 183 degrees C for 40 s. It was concluded that the SBF could be added to the formulation of wheat chips to offer an alternative snack for consumers.