Perspective of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Turkey: characterization, engine performance and emissions analyses of butanol–biodiesel–diesel blends

Creative Commons License

Al-Samaraae R., Atabani A. I., Uguz G., Kumar G., Arpa O., Ayanoglu A., ...More

Biofuel, vol.11, no.6, pp.715-731, 2017 (Scopus)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Journal Name: Biofuel
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.715-731
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is widely farmed in Turkey. This study investigates the physicochemical properties of safflower biodiesel and its blends with Euro diesel and butanol. A polynomial curve-fitting method was used to predict kinematic viscosity and density of the ternary blends. Furthermore, characteristics such as DSC, FT-IR, UV-Vis and TGA were adopted to evaluate the influence of butanol addition on biodiesel–diesel blends. Engine performance parameters such as BP, torque and BSFC and emissions such as CO, HC, NOx and EGT were studied. Safflower methyl ester satisfied both EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 standards regarding viscosity, flash point and density. However, iodine value was quite high. Oxidation stability fails to satisfy either standard. This is due to the high level of unsaturated fatty acids (91.05%). A reduction in BP, torque, HC and CO coupled with an increase in BSFC, NOx emissions and EGT was observed for all blends compared to Euro diesel. Overall, all blends appear to be good alternatives to biodiesel–diesel blends. This work supports that biodiesel can be blended with diesel and butanol as ternary blends (up to 20%) for use as a fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines. Therefore, combustion characteristics of blends shall be further investigated.