Validation of Friedewald, Martin-Hopkins and Sampson low-density lipoprotein cholesterol equations

Ertürk Zararsız G. , Bolat S., Cephe A. , Koçhan N., Yerlitaş S. İ. , Doğan H. O. , ...More

PLOS ONE, vol.17, pp.1-18, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 17
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1371/journal.pone.0263860
  • Title of Journal : PLOS ONE
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-18



Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an important biomarker for determining cardiovascular risk and regulating lipid lowering therapy. Therefore, the accurate estimation of LDL-C concentration is essential in cardiovascular disease diagnosis and prognosis. Sampson recently proposed a new formula for the estimation of LDL-C. However, little is known regarding the validation of this formula.


This study aimed to validate this new formula with other well-known formulas in Turkish population, composed of adults.


A total of 88,943 participants above 18 years old at Sivas Cumhuriyet University Hospital (Sivas, Turkey) were included to this study. LDL-C was directly measured by homogeneous assays, i.e., Roche, Beckman and Siemens and estimated by Friedewald’s, Martin-Hopkins’, extended Martin-Hopkins’ and Sampson’s formulas. The concordances between the estimations obtained by the formulas and the direct measurements were evaluated both in general and separately for the LDL-C, TG and non-HDL-C sublevels. Linear regression analysis was applied and residual error plots were generated between each estimation and direct measurement method. Coefficient of determination (R2) and mean absolute deviations were also calculated.


The results showed that the extended Martin-Hopkins approach provided the most concordant results with the direct assays for LDL-C estimation. The results also showed that the highest concordances were obtained between the direct assays with the extended Martin-Hopkins formula calculated with the median statistics obtained from our own population. On the other hand, it was observed that the results of the methods may differ in different assays. The extended Martin-Hopkins approach, calculated from the median statistics of our population, gave the most concordant results in patients with “low LDL-C level (LDL-C levels < 70 mg/dL) or hypertriglyceridemia (TG levels ≥ 400 mg/dL)”.


Although the results of the formulas in different assays may vary, the extended Martin-Hopkins approach was the best one with the highest overall concordances. The validity of the Martin Hopkins’ and Sampson’s formulas has to be further investigated in different populations.