Constructing the Schizophrenia Recognition Method Employing GLCM Features from Multiple Brain Regions and Machine Learning Techniques

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Gengeç Benli Ş., Andaç M.

Diagnostics, vol.13, no.13, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 13
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/diagnostics13132140
  • Journal Name: Diagnostics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, EMBASE, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: machine learning, schizophrenia, structural MR images
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


Accurately diagnosing schizophrenia, a complex psychiatric disorder, is crucial for effectively managing the treatment process and methods. Various types of magnetic resonance (MR) images have the potential to serve as biomarkers for schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to numerically analyze differences in the textural characteristics that may occur in the bilateral amygdala, caudate, pallidum, putamen, and thalamus regions of the brain between individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls via structural MR images. Towards this aim, Gray Level Co-occurence Matrix (GLCM) features obtained from five regions of the right, left, and bilateral brain were classified using machine learning methods. In addition, it was analyzed in which hemisphere these features were more distinctive and which method among Adaboost, Gradient Boost, eXtreme Gradient Boosting, Random Forest, k-Nearest Neighbors, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Naive Bayes had higher classification success. When the results were examined, it was demonstrated that the GLCM features of these five regions in the left hemisphere could be classified as having higher performance in schizophrenia compared to healthy individuals. Using the LDA algorithm, classification success was achieved with a 100% AUC, 94.4% accuracy, 92.31% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and an F1 score of 91.9% in healthy and schizophrenic individuals. Thus, it has been revealed that the textural characteristics of the five predetermined regions, instead of the whole brain, are an important indicator in identifying schizophrenia.