Industry 4.0-Related Digital Divide in Enterprises: An Analysis for The European Union-28

Atik H., Ünlü F.

SOSYOEKONOMI, vol.28, pp.225-244, 2020 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2020.03.13
  • Journal Name: SOSYOEKONOMI
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.225-244
  • Keywords: Industry 4.0, Digital Divide, Digital Agenda, Digital Development, European Union, Factor Analysis, BIG DATA, SYSTEMS, CHALLENGES, GUIDE
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


Digital divide has been measured using various indicators in the literature so far. In contrast from the literature, this paper addresses the digital divide within European Union member states according to Industry 4.0-related indicators that have been used for the first time in empirical literature. While Finland, the UK and Germany are among the countries with economic development levels above the EU average, Cyprus, Bulgaria, and Romania are among the countries that are below the Union average in terms of Industry 4.0-related development. It is clear that an Industry 4.0-related digital divide is observable within EU member countries. The European Union should try to decrease the digital gap between member countries by developing and supporting special Industry 4.0 policies, especially for members below the EU average. Therefore, the results of this article will help policy makers in the EU and in member countries.