The genus vetch (Vicia L.) is grown worldwide for fodder, hay, grain and silage, and rich in protein, mineral substances, vitamins and an essential source of roughage in animal husbandry. However, genetic characterization studies in vetch are minimal. In this study, the genetic characterization of a total 37 accessions of five vetches (Vicia L.) species was investigated using SSR markers. A total of 18 SSR markers were used, and eight of them were showed polymorphism and used for genetic analysis of vetch accessions. The total number of alleles was 35, and the average number of alleles for each locus was determined as 4.38. The average heterozygote rate was found to be 0.49. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value varied between 0.23 and 0.77, and the average value was 0.44. Although almost a clear distinction was observed among the species, very high similarities were found between some cultivars within the same species. This similarity may be due to the narrow structure of the vetch genome or the inability of the SSR markers used in this study to distinguish the narrow structure of the vetch genome. The results reported here will be contributed to future germplasm management efforts and for comparative studies in vetch.