© 2014 Taylor & Francis.Two native entomopathogenic nematodes were isolated from soil samples in Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey and characterized based on 28S rDNA region. BLASTN homology and phylogenetic analysis of SK17 and SK-71 isolates indicated 98% and 99% identity to Steinernema affine and Steinernema feltiae, respectively. The results were constructed by neighbour-joining and bootstrap tree methods. Efficacy of S. affine (SK-17 strain) and S. feltiae (SK-71 strain) was tested against the larvae of pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams, and remarkable mortality rates were obtained. Both strains caused complete mortality upon application of 500 IJs in foliar tests. However, the same strains caused 30% and 33% mortality at 80 IJs/cm2 in soil applications. It was concluded that these native strains could be considered as potential biocontrol agents for reducing the damage caused by T. wilkinsoni larvae.