Risk factors and mortality rates of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections in intensive care units

Kuloglu T. O., Unuvar G. K., Cevahir F., Kilic A. U., Alp E.

Journal of Intensive Medicine, 2024 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jointm.2023.11.007
  • Journal Name: Journal of Intensive Medicine
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Gram-negative bacteria, Infection, Intensive care units, Multidrug resistance
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


Background: The prevalence of hospital-acquired infections caused by carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) is increasing worldwide. Several risk factors have been associated with such infections. The present study aimed to identify risk factors and determine the mortality rates associated with CRGNB infections in intensive care units. Methods: This retrospective case-control study was conducted at Erciyes University Hospital (Kayseri, Turkey) between January 2017 and December 2021. Demographic and laboratory data were obtained from the Infection Control Committee data and record system. Patients who had CRGNB infection 48–72 h after hospitalization were assigned to the case group, while those who were not infected with CRGNB during hospitalization formed the control group. Risk factors, comorbidity, demographic data, and mortality rates were compared between the two groups. Results: Approximately 1449 patients (8.97%) were monitored during the active follow-up period; of those, 1171 patients were included in this analysis. CRGNB infection developed in 14 patients (70%) who had CRGNB colonization at admission; 162 (78.2%) were colonized during hospitalization, whereas 515 (54.5%) were not colonized. There was no significant difference in age, sex (male/female) or comorbidities. The total length of hospital stay (median: 24 [interquartile range: 3–378] days) was statistically significantly longer (P=0.001) in the case group than the control group (median: 16 [interquartile range: 3–135] days). The rates of colonization at admission (25.5%; P=0.001) and mortality (64.4%; P=0.001) were also significantly higher in the cases than in the control group, respectively (10.6%, P=0.001; 45.8%, P=0.001). Moreover, the rates of enteral nutrition, transfusion, hemodialysis, mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, reintubation, central venous catheter use, arterial catheterization, chest tube, nasogastric tube use, and bronchoscopy history were significantly higher in the case group (P <0.05). In the univariate analysis, prolonged hospitalization, the time from intensive care unit admission to the development of infection, presence of CRGNB colonization at admission, transfer from other hospitals, previous antibiotic use, enteral nutrition, transfusion, hemodialysis, mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, reintubation, central venous catheter, arterial catheterization, chest tube, total parenteral nutrition, nasogastric tube use, and bronchoscopy procedures were significantly associated with CRGNB infections (P <0.05). Multivariate analysis identified the total length of stay in the hospital (odds ratio [OR]=1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 1.03; P=0.001), colonization (OR=2.19; 95% CI: 1.53 to 3.13; P=0.001), previous antibiotic use (OR=2.36; 95% CI: 1.53 to 3.62; P=0.001), intubation (OR=1.59; 95% CI: 1.14 to 2.20; P=0.006), tracheostomy (OR=1.42; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.99; P=0.047), and central venous catheter use (OR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.19; P=0.002) as the most important risk factors for CRGNB infection. Conclusions: Colonization, previous use of antibiotics, and invasive interventions were recognized as the most important risk factors for infections. Future research should focus on measures for the control of these parameters.