Identification of Campylobacter spp. Isolates with Phenotypic Methods and Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction and Their Antibiotic Susceptibilities


MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI, vol.47, no.2, pp.230-239, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 47 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.5578/mb.4532
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.230-239
  • Keywords: Campylobacter spp., gastroenteritis, phenotypic tests, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic susceptibility, JEJUNI, COLI, RESISTANCE, GENOTYPES, HUMANS
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


The aims of this study were to detect the frequency of isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from acute gastroenteritis cases by phenotypic and molecular methods and to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates. A total of 3287 stool samples obtained from diarrheal patients who were admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey, between March 2010 - March 2011 and sent to the microbiology laboratory, were included in the study. Cefoperazone, amphotericin B and teicoplanin (CAT) supplemented Campylobacter Blood-free Selective Medium (modified CCDA-Preston, Oxoid CM739, UK) was used for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. The media inoculated with stool samples were incubated at 42 degrees C microaerobically for 72 to 96 hours. The genus and species level identifications of the thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolates defined by phenotypic tests were carried out with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates were detected by disc diffusion method and the results were evaluated according to the CLSI guidelines. The thermophilic Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 5.4% (179/3287) of the patients' stool samples. Of Campylobacter positive cases 71% (127/179) were children and 58% (104/179) were male. The prevalence rate was estimated as 7.5% (127/1683) for children and 3.2% (52/1604) for adults. Of the isolates, 146 (82%) were identified as C.jejuni, 24 (13%) were C.coli, 6 (3%) were C.lari and 3 (2%) were C.upsaliensis with phenotypic tests. By using mPCR, 152 (85%) and 27 (15%) of 179 isolates were identified as C.jejuni and C.coli, respectively. Three of the six isolates identified as C.lari by the phenotypic methods were identified as C.jejuni and the remaining three as C.coli by mPCR. Phenotypically identified three C.upsaliensis isolates were shown to be C.jejuni (n=2) and C.coll (n=1). On the other hand one C.coli isolate was found to be C.jejuni by mPCR. The rates of resistance of the isolates were 92.6% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 79.5% for nalidixic acid, 75.6% for levofloxacin, 73.9% for ciprofloxacin, 40.3% for ampicillin, 35% for cefotaxime, 33.4% for piperacillin-tazobactam, 24% for tetracycline, 14.6% for clindamycin, 11.2% for amikacin and 6.3% for erythromycin. During the 13 months study period, the highest isolation rates were detected between March-June (mean rate 66%). Our data concerning the prevalence and antibiotic resistance rates revealed the significance of campylobacters in gastroenteritis cases. Therefore, specific microbiological isolation and identification methods should be applied in routine microbiology laboratories to investigate the presence of campylobacters in gastroenteritis etiology. Besides, determination of the antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates on routine basis should be encouraged to help to guide the antimicrobial treatment approaches in case of gastroenteritis. The results of this study also indicated that phenotypic tests were adequate for the identification of campylobacters at the genus-level, however, for accurate identification at the species level and for reliable epidemiological data molecular analysis might be added to the detailed identification procedures.