Bioaccessibility of Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn in Fruit and Vegetables by the In Vitro UBM and Statistical Evaluation of the Results


BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12011-022-03253-z
  • Keywords: BARGE, UBM, Bioaccessibility, Fruit and vegetables, ICP-OES, ICP-MS, ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS, TRACE-ELEMENTS, HEAVY-METALS, SOILS, FOOD, CD, MG, MO


The total, gastric, and gastro-intestinal Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn concentrations in eight fruit and vegetable samples were investigated. The unified bioaccessibility method (UBM) developed by BARGE (Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe) was performed for in vitro bioaccessibility experiments. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn were determined by ICP-OES and ICP-MS, respectively. The accuracy of the methods was verified using BGS 102 for the BARGE UBM and SRM 1573a for total analysis. The mean BF (%) order for Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn was Mn (101) > Zn (88) > Fe (60) > Cu (30) in gastric phase and Mn (78) > Zn (69) > Fe (46) > Cu (29) in gastro-intestinal phase. The results show that Mn and Zn in all the samples have the greatest bioaccessible values, while the values for Cu are much lower. The relationships among total, gastric, and gastro-intestinal element concentrations were investigated using statistical analysis such as correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis (CA). Total and bioaccessible Cu, Mn, and Zn concentrations were significantly correlated with each other.