The Relationship Between Religion and Aggression Among The High School Students

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Ulu M., İkis M.

Erciyes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, vol.30, no.41, pp.75-96, 2016 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)


In this work, which aims to reveal the relationship between religiosity and aggression level among the high school student, firstly an information is given about aggression, puberty and religious orientation in adolescence as basic concepts. Then the definition of aggression by social psychologist is included and it is emphasized that aggressiveness is a behavior, all behaviors which can be harmful for someone else deliberately aren’t aggression and the person who is exposed to aggressive behavior wants to avoid harm with these definitions. After that some psychologist’s views on aggression have included and how theorists such as Freud, Bandura evaluate the subject have expressed. For Social Learning Theory aggression, can be strengthened or reduced but in psychanalysis aggression comes from birth and reduces the tension by preventing the accumulation of energy. In addition, the descriptions of adolescence in the literature have included and it has been pointed out that the childhood characteristics begin to be abandoned in this period, it is difficult to keep up with the changes that take place in the body, and the teenager is in constant conflict with himself and on the one hand with his surroundings. Besides in this period, the changes that occur both effect the religious development and are effected by religion. After given information about basic concepts like this some studies on aggression and religious orientation, aggression and solving problems, aggression and violence in the schools have been examined and their findings have included.

After this theoretical background has been constructed in this way, three hypotheses have been put forward which are to be tested in terms of the purpose and the problem of the research.

Hypothesis I: “There is a statistically significant difference in terms of demographic variables such as age, gender, grade, school type, achievement status, health status, socio-economic status, parent-child relationship, mother education status, and father education status.”

Hypothesis II: “There is a statistically significant difference in terms of that demographic variables in the religious orientation.”

Hypothesis III. “There is a statistically significant difference between sub-dimensions of religiosity and sub-dimensions of aggression.”

Questionnaire used in the research has two parts. The first is to gather information about the demographic characteristics of participants. The second consists of two different scales. These scales are “Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire” and “Ok-Religious Orientation Scale” in the Likert-type.

Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire has four sub-scales. Physical aggression sub-scale consists of nine items about physical harm to others. Anger sub-scale consists of seven items about emotional dimension of aggression; Hostility sub-scale has 8 items to measure the cognitive dimension of it and verbal sub-scale has five items about hurting others by words. In total, there are 29 items in the questionnaire and its alpha coefficient is ,871.

The religious orientation of participants is determined by Ok-Religious Orientation Scale. Scale focuses on cognitive, emotional and behavioral which compose the attitude in the social psychology. The scale evaluates a person’s general opinion about religion in cognition dimension; how much the person is effected by the religion in emotion dimension and how much the values lead a person in the behavior dimension. Later Ok has added relational which is in the center of religion as fourth dimension to the scale. The scale has 8 items and its Cronbach alpha coefficient is ,90.

The sample of the study consists of 157 students studying in different schools in Kayseri. The questionnaire collected from students is evaluated in SPSS 22. In application, quantitative analyses methods (means, percentages, correlations, t-test and ANOVA) were used in analyzing the data.

Age range of participants is 14-19. For gender, the rate of female students is 55,4%. In terms of school type, the proportion of participants is 56,7% from Anatolian School. In terms of health status, the proportion of those who perceive their situation as "good" comes first with 73.9%. In terms of economic situation, it is seen that the ones who evaluated their economic status as "moderate" are in the first place with 47,1%. It was observed that 89.8% of the students were living with their parents when the parents' union status was examined. When the education level of the parents is considered, much of the students are in the primary education level (50.3%) and the father education level (30.6%)

According to the results obtained in the research, it was determined that there was no meaningful difference between aggressiveness and religious orientation with different variables, and there were significant relations between sub dimensions of religious orientation scale and sub dimensions of aggression scale. The findings were discussed based on the relevant literature and the possible solution proposal was expressed.

Bu çalışma, lise öğrencilerindeki saldırganlık düzeyi ile dindarlık ilişkisini ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda öncelikle temel kavramlar olan saldırganlık, ergenlik ve ergenlikte dini yönelim konularında teorik bilgiler sunulmuştur. Araştırmanın örneklemi, Kayseri İli Melikgazi İlçesi sınırlarındaki farklı okul türlerinde öğrenim gören 157 ortaöğretim öğrencisinden oluşmaktadır. Çalışmada katılımcıların saldırganlığa yönelik eğilimleri dört alt ölçek ve 29 maddeden oluşan “Buss-Perry Saldırganlık Ölçeği” ile, katılımcıların dini eğilimleri de dört alt ölçek ve 8 maddeden oluşan “Ok-Dini Yönelim Ölçeği” ile elde edilmiştir. Araştırmada kullanılan “Buss-Perry Saldırganlık Ölçeği” nin alfa katsayısı ,871, “Ok-Dini Yönelim Ölçeği” alfa katsayısı ise ,806 olarak tespit edilmiştir. Anket tekniği ile elde edilen verilerin analizinde SPSS 22 paket program kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde SPSS yardımıyla frekans dağılımı, aritmetik ortalama, t-testi, anova ve korelasyon analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada farklı değişkenlerle saldırganlık ve dini yönelim arasında anlamlı bir farklılığın olmadığı, dini yönelim ölçeğinin alt boyutları ile saldırganlık ölçeğinin alt boyutları arasında anlamlı ilişkilerin var olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular ilgili literatür temelinde tartışılmış ve olası çözüm önerileri dile getirilmiştir.